Prescription painkillers are a powerful medicine that interferes with the transmission of the nerve signals in the central nervous system to which we perceive as pain. Most painkillers conjointly stimulate the sensitive parts of the brain that are related to pleasure and sensation. Thus, in addition to block pain, they turn out a “high” also.
The most powerful and efficient prescription painkillers are known as opioids, which are opium-like compounds. They’re manufactured to react on and communicate with the nervous system in the same approach as the medication derived from the poppy, like diacetylmorphine. The normally abused opioid painkillers include hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, propoxyphene and meperidine.
Oxycodone has the highest potential for abuse and also the greatest dangers. It’s as powerful as an opiate and affects the nervous system in a similar method. Oxycodone is sold-out on the market under several trade names, like Endodan, Percodan, Roxiprin, Endocet, Percocet, OxyContin, and Roxicet. It comes in pill form.
Hydrocodone is employed together with alternative chemicals and availed in the market in prescription pain medications as pills, capsules, tablets and syrups. Trade names include Dicodid, Anexsia, Hycomine, Hycodan, Lortab, Lorcet, Norco, Vicodin, and Tussionex. Sales and production of this drug have exaggerated significantly in recent years, as has its illicit use.
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) and Meperidine (Demerol) are available in tablets while propoxyphene (Darvon) is available in capsules. However, these all three drugs are well-known to be crushed and injected, smoked or snorted.
Why Painkillers Become Highly Addictive?
Opioid painkillers turn out a temporary elation. However, they’re also habit-forming.Long-term use of painkillers can result in physical dependence.
The body adapts to the influence of the substance, and if one stops taking the drug suddenly after frequent usage, several withdrawal symptoms occur. Or the body might build up a tolerance to the drug, which means that higher doses got to be taken to attain permanent effects. Like all drugs, painkillers merely mask the pain for which they’re taken. They don’t “cure” anything in fact. Someone endlessly attempting to dull the pain might notice himself taking higher and higher doses, only to get that he cannot build it through the day without the drug.
Symptoms of withdrawal include insomnia, restlessness, muscle and bone pain, vomiting, diarrhea, goose bumps (cold turkey), and involuntary leg movements.
One of the extreme risks of opioids is respiratory depression. The high doses cause breathing to hamper to the point it stops, and therefore the user dies.
Because it reacts on the nervous system in the same way the heroin or opium, some abusers continually use a brand of oxycodone pain pill, OxyContin, as a substitute for the street drugs like heroin.
Armed robberies have also taken place in pharmacies, and the robber demanded only OxyContin drug, not cash. It shows the importance of this drug among its abusers. In some areas, significantly the eastern areas of U.S, OxyContin is noticed as the drug of greatest concern to law enforcement authorities.
OxyContin is also widely called as “hillbilly heroin”. Due to its extreme abuse in the Appalachian communities, has emerged as a significant crime downside within the US.
Mental and Physical effects:
- Increased risk of heart attack
- Respiratory depression
A brief History:
Opiates were initially derived from the opium poppy and are used for thousands of years for each recreational and meditative purposes. The first active substance in narcotic is morphine that was named after Morpheus (known as the Greek god of dreams). Morphine is well-known as a terribly powerful medication. However, it’s also terribly addictive.
In the sixteenth century, laudanum (opium prepared in an alcoholic solution) was used as a medication.
Morphine was initially extracted from the opium in a very real kind within the early nineteenth century. It had been used widely as a medicine throughout the America civil war, and plenty of troopers became addicted due to its usage.
Codeine, a less powerful drug that’s found in opium but is often synthesized, was first confined in France in 1830 by Jean-Pierre Robiquet to exchange the raw opium for several medical functions. It’s used chiefly as a cough remedy.